Glossary

AEG (Allgemeines Eisenbahngesetz) – German General Railway Act

The General Railway Act serves to ensure the safe operation of the rail network, to enable an attractive range of rail transport services and to protect the interests of consumers in the railway market. The Act also serves to transpose or implement rail-related EC/EU legislation where this European legislation falls within the scope of the Act.

BBodSchG (Bundes-Bodenschutzgesetz) – German Federal Soil Act

The Federal Soil Act protects and restores the functions of the soil on a sustainable basis.

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BIM – Building Information Modelling

Building Information Modelling (BIM) allows all parties involved in large-scale projects to access a central data source. The basis for this is a 3D model that visualises the individual planning of all technical disciplines. In combination with costings and scheduling, these visualisations allow for more reliable planning of construction projects and greater transparency.

BImSchG (Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz) – German Pollution Control Act

Law to protect against harmful effects on the environment caused by air pollution, noise, vibration and similar phenomena.

16. BImSchV – 16th Ordinance for the Implementation of the German Pollution Control Act (Traffic Noise Ordinance)

This ordinance defines the noise emission limits for traffic noise that apply when infrastructure is substantially modified, and sets out the process for calculating the noise rating level.

24. BImSchV – 24th Ordinance for the Implementation of the German Pollution Control Act (Traffic Route Noise-Control Measures Ordinance)

This ordinance defines the nature and scope of the necessary noise-control measures in buildings for rooms requiring protection from the harmful environmental impact of traffic noise.

BSchwAg (Bundesschienenwegeausbaugesetz) – German Federal Railway Infrastructure Development Act

see BVWP (Bundesverkehrswegeplan) – FTIP (Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan)

BVWP (Bundesverkehrswegeplan) – FTIP (Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan)

The overall strategy for the expansion and construction of infrastructure in Germany is drawn up by the Federal Government. The Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan (FTIP) is the most important planning tool. The FTIP sets out the framework for forthcoming investments in federal transport infrastructure, both for maintenance and for upgrades and new construction, and prioritises the various projects so that they can be realised in accordance with the available budgets. The content of the FTIP acquires legal force with its incorporation into the Federal Railway Infrastructure Development Act (Bundesschienenwegeausbaugesetz), which is approved by parliament. DB Netz AG designs and implements infrastructure measures on behalf of the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI).

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CCS – Control-command and signalling

Control-command and signalling at DB AG encompasses all measures that ensure the safety of rail traffic. We further distinguish between interlocking technology and the train control system. Both systems work together to allow trains to run smoothly and on time across the network of tracks. Interlockings based on relay technology are being replaced by modern electronic interlockings controlled from operations centres. 

EBO (Eisenbahn-Bau- und Betriebsordnung) – German Railway Construction and Operating Regulations

The EBO regulates the construction, operation and use of railway installations.

EIA – Environmental impact assessment

The environmental impact assessment (EIA) is an important basis for preparatory planning. It sets out the encroachment on the natural environment of the relevant construction measures and describes the effects on people, fauna, flora, water, soil, climate, air and landscapes as well as on cultural and material assets. The EIA is produced by independent experts and forms the basis for the environmental impact mitigation plan. The latter is prepared by Deutsche Bahn AG and coordinated with the competent regional authorities so as to ensure that the natural environment and landscape are extensively protected and any unavoidable encroachments are offset through measures with at least the same level of ecological functionality. Conservation at DB

EkrG (Eisenbahnkreuzungsgesetz) – German Rail Crossings Act

This act applies to crossings between railways and roads.

Environmental impact mitigation plan

see environmental impact assessment

ETCS – European Train Control System

The European Train Control System, or ETCS for short, enables trains to run without lineside signals, while at the same time improving safety. The system can be likened to an autopilot, such as those that have been commonly used in commercial aviation for decades. Further information is available here.

Grade-separated junction/Flying junction

Grade-separated junctions (also known as flying junctions) allow two routes to diverge without trains having to cross paths. This is achieved using bridges, underpasses, cuttings, tunnels and other structures. 

HOAI – Official Scale of Fees for Services by Architects and Engineers

The Official Scale of Fees for Services by Architects and Engineers (Honorarordnung für Architekten und Ingenieure – HOAI) is an ordinance in which the German government regulates the fees payable for architectural and engineering services in Germany.

HOAI phases

Based on the HOAI (Official Scale of Fees for Services by Architects and Engineers), construction projects are divided into self-contained phases, with each new phase building on the previous ones.

  • HOAI phase 1: Basic evaluation
  • HOAI phase 2: Preliminary design (project and planning preparation)
  • HOAI phase 3: Final design (system and integration planning)
  • HOAI phase 4: Planning for building permit application
  • HOAI phase 5: Construction drawings
  • HOAI phase 6: Preparation of tender documents
  • HOAI phase 7: Evaluation of bids
  • HOAI phase 8: Construction site supervision
  • HOAI phase 9: Acceptance procedure

KrWG (Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz) – German Waste Management Act

This legislation encourages recycling management to protect natural resources and ensures the protection of people and the environment in the production and management of waste.

Land acquisition

Types of land use:

Land to be used temporarily:

These areas are only used during the construction period and are returned to the owners or authorised users once construction work is complete. Agreements govern compensation for usage rights, loss of earnings, economic hardship and any necessary recultivation and maintenance measures. Examples: construction site access roads, storage areas and working strips.

Acquisition of land ownership:

If a plot or parts thereof will need to be used permanently for the measures planned, DB acquires the land. Both owners and tenants are compensated for their inability to exploit this land, with the amount of compensation based on independent expert opinions. Examples: new railway tracks, dams or stations, relocation of roads and waterways.

Level crossing

Level crossings are areas where railways cross roads, paths and spaces without a bridge, underpass or tunnel.

Noise pollution prevention

Noise control measures on new and upgraded lines in accordance with the 16th Ordinance for the Implementation of the German Pollution Control Act (BImSchG) The noise control measures set out in the 16th Ordinance for the Implementation of the German Pollution Control Act apply to new and upgraded rail lines. Targeted noise pollution prevention measures are an important part of project planning and an integral component of the planning approval procedure. If lines are newly built or substantially modified, the Pollution Control Act stipulates that harmful environmental impact of traffic noise must be prevented by means of active and passive noise control measures and that specified noise limits must be observed. A substantial structural modification is deemed to occur if

  • a railway line is upgraded by adding one or more continuous tracks.
  • the noise rating level is increased by at least 3 dB(A) or to at least 70 dB(A) during the day or at least 60 dB(A) at night as a result of substantial structural work.
  • an existing noise exposure of 70 dB(A) or more during the daytime or 60 dB(A) or more at night is additionally increased by substantial structural work.

Information on noise protection is available on the DB AG noise control website: http://www1.deutschebahn.com/laerm

Plan revision procedure

The plan revision procedure is the process for obtaining a construction permit in the event of changes to the plans once a legally valid planning approval has already been granted.

Planning approval procedure

The planning approval procedure is the process for obtaining a construction permit. The process examines numerous legal and technical aspects of the project. The Federal Railway Authority (EBA) studies the planning approval documents, looking at questions such as the following: Will legal requirements concerning noise and environmental protection be met? Is the construction project permissible? Public and private interests are weighed against each other. A public hearing involving all affected parties is also part of the planning approval procedure. Based on the public hearing, the German Federal Railway Authority issues planning approval – the permit to construct the infrastructure. The planning approval is published. If no appeal is made against the planning approval in court, construction can begin.

Stages of the planning approval procedure (image: © DB AG)

Railway overpass

A railway overpass is a bridge allowing a railway to pass over a road.

Regional planning procedure

When projects from the Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan are undertaken, the second step for challenging projects with major impacts is the regional planning procedure – a report from the state authorities evaluating different route options. As part of this work, individual expert opinions are prepared and specialists, environmental associations and action groups involved in the process. The results are displayed in the affected municipalities for a four-week period and usually published online.

Requirements plan

The overall strategy for the expansion and construction of infrastructure in Germany is drawn up by the Federal Government. The Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan (FTIP) is the most important planning tool. The FTIP sets out the framework for forthcoming investments in federal transport infrastructure, both for maintenance and for upgrades and new construction, and prioritises the various projects so that they can be realised in accordance with the available budgets. The content of the FTIP acquires legal force with its incorporation into the Federal Railway Infrastructure Development Act (Bundesschienenwegeausbaugesetz), which is approved by parliament. DB Netz AG designs and implements infrastructure measures on behalf of the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure.

SächsWaldG (Waldgesetz für den Freistaat Sachsen) – Forests Act for the State of Saxony

This legislation serves to preserve and protect forests in Saxony, to promote forestry and to support forest owners and balance their interests with those of the general public.

UVPG (Gesetz über die Umweltverträglichkeitsprüfung) – German Environmental Impact Assessment Act

This legislation regulates the evaluation of the environmental impact of projects which, for reasons such as their size or location, could have significant environmental effects.

WFD – Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC)

The European directive combines the special protection of water with its environmentally, socially and economically sustainable use.